Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda

مِرزا مُحمّد رفِیع سَودا

Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda


Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda, often referred to simply as Sauda, was an 18th-century Urdu and Persian poet of India. He is celebrated as one of the prominent figures in the realm of classical Urdu poetry, and his contributions are particularly significant in the domain of Urdu ghazals. Sauda was born in 1713 in Delhi, which was a center of cultural and literary activity during his time.

Sauda’s poetry is known for its wit, humor, and satirical elements, making him a distinctive and influential figure in the world of classical Urdu poetry. He was not only a master of the traditional ghazal form but also excelled in composing qasidas, masnavis, and rubais. His verses often reflected the social and political realities of his era, while also delving into themes of love, mysticism, and the human condition.

During his lifetime, Sauda was a part of the literary and cultural circle of the Mughal court in Delhi. He had patrons and contemporaries who admired his work, including the famous poet Mir Taqi Mir. Sauda’s verses were appreciated not only for their literary merit but also for their candid expression and boldness in addressing societal issues.

Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda’s poetry remains influential and revered in the world of classical Urdu literature. His wit, wordplay, and satirical style have left a lasting impact on subsequent generations of poets and continue to be celebrated as an integral part of Urdu literary heritage.

Resting place

Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda, a renowned 18th-century Urdu poet in India, is believed to be buried in Delhi, India. His exact resting place may not be well-documented, but it is commonly accepted that he was buried in Delhi, where he spent much of his life and where he made significant contributions to Urdu poetry. However, specific details about his grave or resting place may be limited.

Notable work

Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda, also known as Sauda, was an 18th-century Urdu poet from India. He is known for his wit and humor in his poetry, and his notable works include:

1. Hikayat-e-Sauda: This is Sauda’s most famous work, a collection of satirical and humorous verses that often comment on the social and political issues of his time. It is considered a classic of Urdu literature and is known for its sharp wit.

2. Qasida Burda: This is a famous Urdu translation of the Burda, a classical Arabic poem written by Imam al-Busiri. Sauda’s translation of the Burda is highly regarded for its linguistic and poetic beauty.

3. Ghazals: Sauda also wrote ghazals, a form of Urdu poetry that is known for its lyrical and romantic themes. His ghazals, like his other works, often contained elements of humor and satire.

Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda’s poetry is celebrated for its unique blend of humor and satire, making it a significant contribution to Urdu literature. His works continue to be studied and appreciated by scholars and poetry enthusiasts.

Early life

Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda was a renowned Urdu poet of the Mughal era in India. He was born in 1713 in Delhi, which was the capital of the Mughal Empire at the time. Not much is known about his early life and family background, but he is celebrated for his literary contributions.

Sauda is best known for his ghazals and satirical poetry. His verses often displayed wit, humor, and a keen understanding of human nature. He was a contemporary of other famous Urdu poets like Mir Taqi Mir and Mir Dard, and his poetry was characterized by its distinct style and content.

Sauda’s works are considered an essential part of Urdu literature, and his poetry continues to be celebrated for its unique blend of traditional and contemporary themes. His life and works remain an integral part of the cultural and literary history of the Indian subcontinent.


Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda (1713-1780) was a renowned Urdu poet of the Mughal era in India. He is known for his ghazals, qasidas, and satirical poetry. Here are some of his notable works:

1. Qasidas: Sauda wrote several qasidas, which are long, panegyric poems in praise of various Mughal emperors, including Shah Alam II and Shah Jahan III.

2. Ghazals: He is known for his ghazals, which are short, lyrical poems often focusing on themes of love, beauty, and the pain of separation. His ghazals are celebrated for their depth of emotion and expression.

3. Satirical Poetry: Sauda was also famous for his satirical poetry, known as “Hindi Marsiya.” He used satire to comment on the social and political issues of his time, often in a humorous and witty manner.

4. Divan-e-Sauda: This is a collection of his poetry, which includes his ghazals, qasidas, and other forms of poetry. It is one of his most well-known works.

5. Khizri Nama: A significant work that focuses on the story of Khizri, a legendary Islamic figure often associated with water and fertility. Sauda’s Khizri Nama is written in a humorous and satirical style.

6. Musaddas: Sauda also wrote musaddas, which are narrative poems written in rhyming couplets. These poems often focus on historical or romantic themes.

Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda is regarded as one of the classical Urdu poets who made significant contributions to the development of Urdu poetry during the Mughal era. His works are still studied and appreciated for their literary and historical significance.


Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda (1713-1781) was a renowned Urdu and Persian poet during the Mughal era in India. He left behind a significant legacy in the world of literature and culture. Here are some aspects of his legacy:

1. Urdu and Persian Poetry: Sauda was a prolific poet who wrote in both Urdu and Persian. His poetry is known for its wit, humor, and satirical style. He played a vital role in the development of Urdu poetry during the 18th century. His ghazals and qasidas, often filled with social and political commentary, are still celebrated for their craftsmanship.

2. Satirical Poetry: Sauda was a master of satire. He used his poetry to comment on the socio-political conditions of his time. His satirical verses criticized the decadence of the Mughal court, the hypocrisy of the clergy, and the social norms of his era. His work helped lay the foundation for the tradition of satirical poetry in Urdu literature.

3. Influence on Subsequent Poets: Sauda’s style and use of language had a lasting impact on subsequent generations of Urdu poets. His ability to use humor and satire to address serious issues set a precedent for many poets who followed. His legacy can be seen in the works of notable poets like Mir Taqi Mir and Mirza Ghalib.

4. Cultural and Historical Insight: Sauda’s poetry provides valuable insights into the cultural, social, and political landscape of 18th-century India, particularly during the decline of the Mughal Empire. His verses are like a window into the lives and concerns of people during that period.

5. Contribution to Urdu Language: Sauda’s poetic works helped refine the Urdu language, setting standards for expression and diction. His use of Persian and Arabic words in Urdu poetry contributed to the enrichment of the language, making it more versatile and expressive.

6. Celebration of Diversity: Sauda’s poetry often celebrated the cultural and linguistic diversity of India. He composed verses that highlighted the harmonious coexistence of various communities, which is an important theme in his work.

Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda’s legacy lives on through his poetry, which continues to be studied, appreciated, and celebrated by scholars, poets, and enthusiasts of Urdu and Persian literature. His work remains a source of inspiration for those interested in the power of poetry to address the issues of society and provide insights into the human condition.

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