Makhdoom Mohiuddin

مخدومؔ محی الدین

Nida Fazli


Makhdoom Mohiuddin was a renowned Pakistani poet, philosopher, and politician who made significant contributions to Urdu literature. He was born on August 4, 1908, in a small village called Hala, located in the Sindh province of British India (now in Pakistan). Makhdoom Mohiuddin is celebrated for his profound poetry, which explored a wide range of themes, including love, social justice, and spirituality.

His literary work is characterized by its rich and evocative language, which resonated with people from all walks of life. Mohiuddin was known for his progressive and humanistic views, and his poetry often carried messages of hope and resilience, addressing the challenges and issues of his time.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin was not only a poet but also a prominent political figure. He actively participated in the struggle for independence and was associated with various political and literary movements in the Indian subcontinent. His work reflects his commitment to social and political causes, and his poems were often seen as a form of protest against social injustice.

Throughout his life, Makhdoom Mohiuddin remained a prominent figure in the literary and political circles of Pakistan. He passed away on November 16, 1969, leaving behind a rich legacy of Urdu poetry and a lasting impact on the cultural and political landscape of the region. His poetry continues to be cherished by readers and enthusiasts, and he is remembered as one of the prominent voices in Urdu literature.

Resting place

Makhdoom Mohiuddin, a prominent Urdu poet and Sufi saint, is buried in the town of Sehwan Sharif, located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. His shrine is a significant religious and cultural center and is visited by people from various parts of the world, especially during the annual Urs festival, which commemorates his death anniversary. Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s poetry and teachings continue to be revered by many in the region.

Notable work

Makhdoom Mohiuddin (1908-1969) was a prominent Urdu poet, philosopher, and scholar from Pakistan. He is known for his significant contributions to Urdu literature. Some of his notable works include:

1. Saaz-i-Sang: This is one of Mohiuddin’s most celebrated poetic collections. It contains a rich blend of philosophical and romantic poetry, showcasing his mastery over the Urdu language and his deep insight into human emotions and spirituality.

2. Harf-i-Baryab: Another famous collection of his poetry, “Harf-i-Baryab” is known for its profound themes and lyrical style. It reflects Mohiuddin’s thoughts on life, love, and the human condition.

3. Falsafah-o-Karwan-e-Zindagi: This is a collection of his philosophical essays and writings, demonstrating his intellectual prowess. In this work, Mohiuddin explored various philosophical ideas and the purpose of human existence.

4. Roshnaiyon Ke Minar: This book is a compilation of his critical essays and literary analyses. It reflects his in-depth understanding of Urdu literature and showcases his skills as a literary critic.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s works are known for their depth, versatility, and their ability to resonate with readers on various levels. His poetry and prose continue to be celebrated in the world of Urdu literature, and he remains a significant figure in the literary history of Pakistan.

Early life

Makhdoom Mohiuddin was a renowned Urdu poet and a prominent figure in the progressive literary movement of Pakistan. He was born on August 9, 1908, in a village called Mohri Sharif, located in the Punjab region of British India. His early life was marked by a strong connection to Sufism and a deep appreciation for literature.

Here are some key points about the early life of Makhdoom Mohiuddin:

1. Sufi Background: Makhdoom Mohiuddin belonged to a Sufi family, and he was the descendent of the great Sufi saint Makhdoom Jahanian Jahangasht, who lived in the 14th century. This Sufi heritage had a significant influence on his life and poetry.

2. Education: He received his early education in his village and later continued his studies in Lahore. He was well-versed in Arabic and Persian literature, which significantly contributed to his poetic skills and understanding of classical poetry.

3. Early Poetry: Mohiuddin’s literary journey began at an early age, and he started writing poetry during his school years. His poetry reflected his passion for social justice, human rights, and the struggles of the common people.

4. Progressive Ideals: Makhdoom Mohiuddin was deeply influenced by the progressive and leftist political and social ideas of his time. He became associated with the Progressive Writers’ Movement, a literary and intellectual movement in the Indian subcontinent that aimed to use literature and art to promote social change and address issues of oppression and inequality.

5. Partition and Migration: After the partition of India in 1947, Mohiuddin migrated to Pakistan along with millions of other people. This event had a profound impact on his poetry, as he witnessed the upheaval and suffering caused by the partition.

6. Literary Contribution: He is best known for his revolutionary and socially conscious poetry, which often addressed issues such as poverty, exploitation, and the struggle of the working class. His poems were widely appreciated for their powerful themes and impactful verses.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s early life experiences, including his Sufi background, education, and exposure to the progressive ideas of his time, played a crucial role in shaping his identity as a poet and activist. His poetry continues to be celebrated for its contribution to the Urdu literary tradition and its commitment to social justice.


Makhdoom Mohiuddin was a renowned Urdu poet and a prominent figure in the world of Urdu literature. He was born on August 4, 1908, in Hyderabad, India, and passed away on August 22, 1969. He is known for his progressive and revolutionary poetry that often addressed social and political issues of his time. Some of his notable works include:

1. Naye Mausam (نئے موسم): This collection of poetry reflects Mohiuddin’s progressive and revolutionary views. He used his poetry as a means to raise awareness about social injustice and the struggles of the common people.

2. Shaheen (شاہین): “Shaheen” is one of Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s most famous works. It is a long poem that celebrates the spirit of freedom and portrays the eagle (Shaheen) as a symbol of courage and freedom. This poem has been widely appreciated for its powerful and inspirational verses.

3. Ghubar-e-Khatir (غبار خاطر): This collection of poetry also contains poems with a strong social and political message. It reflects Mohiuddin’s concern for the marginalized and oppressed in society.

4. Awaz-e-Dost (آواز دوست): This book is a collection of his letters, which provide insights into his life, thoughts, and interactions with other literary figures and activists.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s poetry is known for its emotional depth, social commentary, and a call for justice and equality. His works continue to be influential in Urdu literature, and he is celebrated for his contributions to progressive and socially relevant poetry.


Saadat Hasan Manto, one of the most celebrated and controversial figures in Urdu literature, left behind a profound and enduring legacy that continues to influence writers, artists, and intellectuals both in South Asia and around the world. His legacy can be understood in several key aspects:

1. Fearless Expression of Truth:
Manto is renowned for his unflinching portrayal of the raw, unfiltered truths of society, particularly the dark and often taboo aspects. He tackled subjects like human depravity, violence, sexuality, and the impact of Partition with a candor that shocked and captivated readers. His commitment to depicting reality as it was earned him both admiration and criticism. His fearless approach to storytelling remains a touchstone for writers seeking to challenge societal norms and explore the human condition.

2. Masterful Short Stories:
Manto’s mastery of the short story genre is often considered unparalleled in Urdu literature. His stories are characterized by their concise, impactful narratives and the depth of their characters. They delve into the complexities of human psychology and society. Manto’s stories are still widely read and studied, and his storytelling techniques have influenced generations of writers in the Urdu language.

3. Social and Political Commentary:
Manto’s writings are a reflection of the socio-political turmoil of his time, particularly during the Partition of India in 1947. His works provide valuable insights into the human suffering and the communal tensions of that period. His narratives are a vital historical document, shedding light on the trauma, brutality, and complexity of that era, which continues to be of interest to historians and scholars.

4. Advocacy for Freedom of Expression:
Manto’s life and writings also serve as a symbol of the struggle for freedom of expression. He faced numerous legal battles and censorship for his writings, yet he continued to write boldly. Manto’s resilience in the face of adversity has inspired countless artists and writers to defend their right to express themselves freely, even in the face of societal and political pressures.

5. Influence on Subcontinental Literature:
Manto’s impact extends well beyond Urdu literature. His works have been translated into numerous languages and have left a lasting mark on the broader landscape of South Asian literature. Many writers, both within and outside of the subcontinent, have acknowledged Manto as a major influence on their craft, and his themes of human frailty and societal hypocrisy continue to resonate with readers worldwide.

6. Cultural Icon:
Manto has become a cultural icon, with his life and works serving as subjects for plays, films, and documentaries. These adaptations have brought his writings to new audiences and increased his visibility as a literary figure. He is celebrated through various cultural events and literary festivals, ensuring that his legacy remains vibrant and relevant.

In conclusion, Saadat Hasan Manto’s legacy is multifaceted, encompassing his fearless pursuit of truth, his masterful storytelling, his socio-political commentary, his advocacy for freedom of expression, his influence on literature, and his status as a cultural icon. His writings continue to resonate with readers and writers, and his commitment to depicting the unvarnished realities of society remains a source of inspiration for those who value honesty and integrity in literature and art.

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