Nida Fazli

Makhdoom Mohiuddin

مخدومؔ محی الدین
4 February 1908


4 February 1908




Makhdoom Mohiuddin was a renowned Pakistani poet, philosopher, and politician who made significant contributions to Urdu literature. He was born on August 4, 1908, in a small village called Hala, located in the Sindh province of British India (now in Pakistan). Makhdoom Mohiuddin is celebrated for his profound poetry, which explored a wide range of themes, including love, social justice, and spirituality.

His literary work is characterized by its rich and evocative language, which resonated with people from all walks of life. Mohiuddin was known for his progressive and humanistic views, and his poetry often carried messages of hope and resilience, addressing the challenges and issues of his time.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin was not only a poet but also a prominent political figure. He actively participated in the struggle for independence and was associated with various political and literary movements in the Indian subcontinent. His work reflects his commitment to social and political causes, and his poems were often seen as a form of protest against social injustice.

Throughout his life, Makhdoom Mohiuddin remained a prominent figure in the literary and political circles of Pakistan. He passed away on November 16, 1969, leaving behind a rich legacy of Urdu poetry and a lasting impact on the cultural and political landscape of the region. His poetry continues to be cherished by readers and enthusiasts, and he is remembered as one of the prominent voices in Urdu literature.

Early life

Makhdoom Mohiuddin was a renowned Urdu poet and a prominent figure in the progressive literary movement of Pakistan. He was born on August 9, 1908, in a village called Mohri Sharif, located in the Punjab region of British India. His early life was marked by a strong connection to Sufism and a deep appreciation for literature.

Here are some key points about the early life of Makhdoom Mohiuddin:

1. Sufi Background: Makhdoom Mohiuddin belonged to a Sufi family, and he was the descendent of the great Sufi saint Makhdoom Jahanian Jahangasht, who lived in the 14th century. This Sufi heritage had a significant influence on his life and poetry.

2. Education: He received his early education in his village and later continued his studies in Lahore. He was well-versed in Arabic and Persian literature, which significantly contributed to his poetic skills and understanding of classical poetry.

3. Early Poetry: Mohiuddin’s literary journey began at an early age, and he started writing poetry during his school years. His poetry reflected his passion for social justice, human rights, and the struggles of the common people.

4. Progressive Ideals: Makhdoom Mohiuddin was deeply influenced by the progressive and leftist political and social ideas of his time. He became associated with the Progressive Writers’ Movement, a literary and intellectual movement in the Indian subcontinent that aimed to use literature and art to promote social change and address issues of oppression and inequality.

5. Partition and Migration: After the partition of India in 1947, Mohiuddin migrated to Pakistan along with millions of other people. This event had a profound impact on his poetry, as he witnessed the upheaval and suffering caused by the partition.

6. Literary Contribution: He is best known for his revolutionary and socially conscious poetry, which often addressed issues such as poverty, exploitation, and the struggle of the working class. His poems were widely appreciated for their powerful themes and impactful verses.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s early life experiences, including his Sufi background, education, and exposure to the progressive ideas of his time, played a crucial role in shaping his identity as a poet and activist. His poetry continues to be celebrated for its contribution to the Urdu literary tradition and its commitment to social justice.

Story behind the name

Makhdoom Mohiuddin was a prominent poet and political activist from the Indian subcontinent, particularly associated with the region that is now part of Pakistan. His name, like many individuals from this region, has a meaningful and historical background.

1. Makhdoom: The title “Makhdoom” is an honorific used in the Indian subcontinent, particularly in Sufi and Islamic contexts. It is derived from the Arabic word “Makhdoom,” which means “master” or “spiritual leader.” In South Asian Sufi traditions, it is used to refer to respected and revered religious leaders and scholars.

2. Mohiuddin: “Mohiuddin” is an Arabic-derived name that means “Reviver of the Faith.” It is a common name among Muslims and is often given to individuals who are seen as upholders or revivers of Islamic principles and values.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s full name, therefore, signifies his position as a respected spiritual leader and scholar who was dedicated to upholding and reviving the principles of the Islamic faith. He was not only a poet but also a political activist who used his literary work to address social and political issues of his time. His poetry often reflected his concern for justice, equality, and the welfare of the common people.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin was an influential figure in the 20th century, and his name reflects his deep connection to both the spiritual and social aspects of the region he lived in. His work continues to be celebrated for its relevance and impact on the cultural and political landscape of the subcontinent.


Makhdoom Mohiuddin was a renowned Urdu poet and a prominent figure in the world of Urdu literature. He was born on August 4, 1908, in Hyderabad, India, and passed away on August 22, 1969. He is known for his progressive and revolutionary poetry that often addressed social and political issues of his time. Some of his notable works include:

1. Naye Mausam (نئے موسم): This collection of poetry reflects Mohiuddin’s progressive and revolutionary views. He used his poetry as a means to raise awareness about social injustice and the struggles of the common people.

2. Shaheen (شاہین): “Shaheen” is one of Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s most famous works. It is a long poem that celebrates the spirit of freedom and portrays the eagle (Shaheen) as a symbol of courage and freedom. This poem has been widely appreciated for its powerful and inspirational verses.

3. Ghubar-e-Khatir (غبار خاطر): This collection of poetry also contains poems with a strong social and political message. It reflects Mohiuddin’s concern for the marginalized and oppressed in society.

4. Awaz-e-Dost (آواز دوست): This book is a collection of his letters, which provide insights into his life, thoughts, and interactions with other literary figures and activists.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s poetry is known for its emotional depth, social commentary, and a call for justice and equality. His works continue to be influential in Urdu literature, and he is celebrated for his contributions to progressive and socially relevant poetry.


Saadat Hasan Manto, one of the most celebrated and controversial figures in Urdu literature, left behind a profound and enduring legacy that continues to influence writers, artists, and intellectuals both in South Asia and around the world. His legacy can be understood in several key aspects:

1. Fearless Expression of Truth:
Manto is renowned for his unflinching portrayal of the raw, unfiltered truths of society, particularly the dark and often taboo aspects. He tackled subjects like human depravity, violence, sexuality, and the impact of Partition with a candor that shocked and captivated readers. His commitment to depicting reality as it was earned him both admiration and criticism. His fearless approach to storytelling remains a touchstone for writers seeking to challenge societal norms and explore the human condition.

2. Masterful Short Stories:
Manto’s mastery of the short story genre is often considered unparalleled in Urdu literature. His stories are characterized by their concise, impactful narratives and the depth of their characters. They delve into the complexities of human psychology and society. Manto’s stories are still widely read and studied, and his storytelling techniques have influenced generations of writers in the Urdu language.

3. Social and Political Commentary:
Manto’s writings are a reflection of the socio-political turmoil of his time, particularly during the Partition of India in 1947. His works provide valuable insights into the human suffering and the communal tensions of that period. His narratives are a vital historical document, shedding light on the trauma, brutality, and complexity of that era, which continues to be of interest to historians and scholars.

4. Advocacy for Freedom of Expression:
Manto’s life and writings also serve as a symbol of the struggle for freedom of expression. He faced numerous legal battles and censorship for his writings, yet he continued to write boldly. Manto’s resilience in the face of adversity has inspired countless artists and writers to defend their right to express themselves freely, even in the face of societal and political pressures.

5. Influence on Subcontinental Literature:
Manto’s impact extends well beyond Urdu literature. His works have been translated into numerous languages and have left a lasting mark on the broader landscape of South Asian literature. Many writers, both within and outside of the subcontinent, have acknowledged Manto as a major influence on their craft, and his themes of human frailty and societal hypocrisy continue to resonate with readers worldwide.

6. Cultural Icon:
Manto has become a cultural icon, with his life and works serving as subjects for plays, films, and documentaries. These adaptations have brought his writings to new audiences and increased his visibility as a literary figure. He is celebrated through various cultural events and literary festivals, ensuring that his legacy remains vibrant and relevant.

In conclusion, Saadat Hasan Manto’s legacy is multifaceted, encompassing his fearless pursuit of truth, his masterful storytelling, his socio-political commentary, his advocacy for freedom of expression, his influence on literature, and his status as a cultural icon. His writings continue to resonate with readers and writers, and his commitment to depicting the unvarnished realities of society remains a source of inspiration for those who value honesty and integrity in literature and art.

Notable work

Makhdoom Mohiuddin (1908-1969) was a prominent Urdu poet, philosopher, and scholar from Pakistan. He is known for his significant contributions to Urdu literature. Some of his notable works include:

1. Saaz-i-Sang: This is one of Mohiuddin’s most celebrated poetic collections. It contains a rich blend of philosophical and romantic poetry, showcasing his mastery over the Urdu language and his deep insight into human emotions and spirituality.

2. Harf-i-Baryab: Another famous collection of his poetry, “Harf-i-Baryab” is known for its profound themes and lyrical style. It reflects Mohiuddin’s thoughts on life, love, and the human condition.

3. Falsafah-o-Karwan-e-Zindagi: This is a collection of his philosophical essays and writings, demonstrating his intellectual prowess. In this work, Mohiuddin explored various philosophical ideas and the purpose of human existence.

4. Roshnaiyon Ke Minar: This book is a compilation of his critical essays and literary analyses. It reflects his in-depth understanding of Urdu literature and showcases his skills as a literary critic.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s works are known for their depth, versatility, and their ability to resonate with readers on various levels. His poetry and prose continue to be celebrated in the world of Urdu literature, and he remains a significant figure in the literary history of Pakistan.

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Awards and recognition

Makhdoom Mohiuddin was a prominent Urdu poet and a significant literary figure in the 20th century. His work, often focused on social and political issues, left a lasting legacy in the world of Urdu literature. Here are some key aspects of his legacy:

1. Progressive Poetry: Makhdoom Mohiuddin was associated with the progressive writers’ movement in Urdu literature. This movement aimed to address contemporary social and political issues through literature. His poetry was characterized by a commitment to social justice, secularism, and the rights of the underprivileged.

2. Social Relevance: Mohiuddin’s poetry often dealt with the struggles of the common people, highlighting their economic and social issues. He was known for his empathy and concern for the downtrodden and marginalized sections of society. His works resonated with the masses because of their relevance to everyday life.

3. Love and Revolution: His poetry also explored the themes of love and revolution, combining elements of romance with social and political commentary. He used his verses to express his views on the need for social change and the role of the poet in fostering this change.

4. Progressive Ideology: Makhdoom Mohiuddin was not just a poet; he was a thinker and activist who advocated for progressive ideals. His poetry was a reflection of his commitment to these values, and he encouraged others to participate in the struggle for a more just and equitable society.

5. Influence on Urdu Literature: His works continue to be studied and appreciated in Urdu literature. Many poets and writers have been inspired by his style and themes, and his influence on subsequent generations of Urdu poets is evident.

6. Recognition: Makhdoom Mohiuddin received numerous awards and accolades for his contributions to literature and his advocacy of social causes. He was well-respected in literary circles and is remembered for his significant role in shaping Urdu literature in the 20th century.

Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s legacy endures through his poetry and the impact he had on the progressive literary movement in Urdu literature. His works remain a source of inspiration for those who seek to use literature as a means to address social and political issues.




Makhdoom Mohiuddin (1908-1969) was a prominent Urdu poet and writer from Pakistan. He is known for his significant contributions to Urdu literature. His poetry is characterized by its deep philosophical themes, love, and social consciousness. Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s works are primarily in the Urdu language, and he played a key role in promoting and popularizing Urdu poetry and literature in Pakistan. His poetry often delves into themes like humanism, love, and social justice. He is also recognized for his contributions to the Progressive Writers’ Movement in South Asia, which sought to use literature and art to address social and political issues of the time. Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s writings reflect a commitment to these ideals and have left a lasting impact on Urdu literature.

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